The paint layer structure
What is the coating build-up?
The paint layer structure is the sum of all coatings applied to an object. Starting with a 1-K 1-layer coating, which is only applied to a substrate for optical reasons, up to a multi-layer coating, such as a corrosion protection offshore coating, there are countless possibilities.
The paint structure is always selected after inspection of the substrate, load-bearing capacity of the old material, environment, and expected properties.
Not every material works from the adhesion on every substrate. Thus, there is no such thing as „this one material – the one golden way“.
Everyone should be aware that if products are used incorrectly, the manufacturer will not provide any warranty for the coating defects.
For pretty much any substrate, there are several coating options and a wide range of products.
For the time being, I will only go into the basic structure here.
Material use according to application and their property
The 1-layer DTM build-up is applied with a 1-K or 2-K 1-layer material. It does not require a primer or filler and meets the properties in one material. What does DTM mean? DTM stands for „direct to metal.“
This material has properties attributed to adhesion to the substrate, corrosion protection and appearance. Some materials reach up to category C3M in corrosion protection classification.
This saves a lot of time and material in many industrial coatings. The process becomes more fluid and ultimately less expensive.
The choice of material ALWAYS depends on the given parameters and purpose of the product.
The 1-layer structure consists of the substrate, the primer or the filler, and one layer of paint material.
Unlike the DTM structure, the material here does not have properties that can influence adhesion and corrosion protection.
The 2-layer structure consists of the substrate together with primer or filler, a 1-K basecoat, and a layer of clear coat.
The 1-component basecoat is the coloring tone in this coating. This material has neither anti-corrosion nor UV-resistant properties. Therefore, this must be overcoated with clear lacquer.
The 3-Layer structure
The 3-layer structure consists of the substrate together with primer or filler, a 1-K basecoat base tone, a 1-K basecoat effect or glaze tone, and a layer of clear coat.
Here, the color tone is given a certain depth by the multiple layers and changes in „tilt“ due to the glaze or pearl component.
The application of such tones is usually only carried out after the creation of spray pattern cards.
(Instruction spray pattern cards)
The 4-Layer structure
The 4-layer structure consists of the substrate together with primer or filler, a 1-K basecoat base tone, a 1-K basecoat effect or glaze tone, one or two coats of colored clear coat, and one coat of transparent clearcoat.
This structure is the supreme discipline in car painting. One mistake in one of the coloring layers and you have to start all over again. A salvage is almost hopeless with pearl parts or glazes. In this case, a lot of patience and skill is needed to build up the paint.
Multiple coats of the different layers and intermediate drying make the buildup more difficult due to the total time required. Here, too, the creation of spray pattern cards is elementary!
(Instructions for spray pattern cards).
Here you will find some coating instructions and what else needs to be taken into action.
An overview of the most common substrates. With a click on each picture, you will find some words about the possible paint layer structures.
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